Mir-Yusif Mir-Babayev: Petroleum History:
The first Baku oil magazine
The article provides information on the issue of the first in Russia scientific oil periodical
"Neftyanoye delo" (Oil industry) in Baku. It is noted that for more than 20-year period of existence
of this edition, it gave full information about global problems of the Russian and world oil industry.
On January 10, 1899, the "Oil Business" (later in the article - OB), which in 1908 became a magazine-type publication with a significant volume of issues discussed in the oil and gas business. Running forward, we note that in May 1920 the magazine was renamed the "Azerbaijan Oil Economy", which is being published to this day.
The congresses of the Baku oil owners, which functioned in Baku from 1884 until the revolutionary events of 1917, served to organize and coordinate the activities of Russian entrepreneurs, and the main purpose of the congresses was the possibility of the oil owners to express their needs, aspirations and desires to the government. Being a printed organ of the Council of the Congress, the periodical edition of the ND supplied the public and scientific world with information on all the pressing problems of the Russian oil industry and printed their most probable and rational decisions.
Let's turn to the time when the first oil edition was published in Baku: in 1898, Russia came out on top in the world in oil production (95% of the general-purpose oil production was given by Azerbaijan); In the same year, 23 million poods of Russian (Baku) kerosene were delivered to Europe. Oil production in the Baku oilfields in 1899 amounted to 525.2 million poods, in 1900 - 603.8 million poods and in 1901 - 671.6 million poods. Having given more than half of the world production, Baku thus left far behind such countries as the USA, Argentina, Peru, etc.
The English traveler and writer Charles Marvin (1854-1890) wrote in his brochure "The Upcoming Stream of Russian Oil": "The daily production of all 25,000 wells and US wells in 1885 was 260000 halons, i.?. 24375 poods. Compare these figures with what the well of Haji Zeynalabdin Taghiyev gives throwing out one 260,000 gallons per day. After that, America, the "country of the best things" can go headfirst. The song of America is sung" [Mining Journal, 1887, vol.1, p.122].
Further, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the influx of foreign capital (especially English) in Baku, which by that time took the leading positions in the oil business, was noticeably increased. Thus, from 1898 to 1903, British industrialists invested more than 47 million rubles in the enterprises of the Baku region; in 1902 in Baku there were 11 English enterprises with a capital of 39.4 million rubles. That is, the monopolization of the oil industry and the objective oil periodical were extremely necessary and timely.
The first issue of the OB published an appeal "From the Editorial Office", which emphasized that the publication would "reflect the issues and needs of the oil industry in its totality, as well as issues related to it, publish information on oil production, consumption, distribution of oil and its products, as well as the work of oil refineries". The main attention was paid to "technical and economic aspects of oil production and processing, its transportation, storage and marketing, communication between the oil industry and the steam fleet, analysis of the Russian (Baku) and foreign oil markets".
OB was a serious oil reference book and a collection of scientific articles by leading experts and mining engineers of the Russian Empire; for example, see below a list of published works and their authors:
Nikolai Lebedev "Mutual geological relations of the oil regions of the Absheron Peninsula" (OB, No. 1, 1899);
Evgeny Yushkin "Pumping oil on the Grozny area" (OB, No. 1, 1899);
Ivan Glushkov "Surakhani, the past and the first Surakhani plant" (OB, NN. 3-4, 9, 1906);
Ivan Gutt "About the Naphthenic Acids of the Balakhani Fuel Oil" (OB, No. 6, 1914);
Ivan Gutt "About the unsaturated hydrocarbons formed during the aromatization of oil and its fractions" (OB, No. 14, 1916);
Mikhail Tikhvinsky "Aromatization of oil" (OB, No. 18, 1916);
Mikhail Tikhvinsky "Obtaining natural gasoline from gas and oil" (OB, No. 24, 1916).
It is characteristic that already in one of the first issues of the newspaper OB was published a detailed analytical article on foreign capital in the Russian oil industry [OB, 1899, No. 7, p.1-5].
It is appropriate to note here that mining engineers Mikhail Mikhailovich Tikhvinsky (1868-1921), Ivan Nikolaevich Glushkov (1873-1916) and Ivan Fedorovich Gutt (1879-1933) stood at the origins of the science of oil chemistry in the Russian Empire, and in particular, in Azerbaijan. So, Glushkov since 1897 worked in the Baku oilfields, and since 1909 - at the St. Petersburg Mining Institute. He first systematized and summarized the domestic and foreign experience of drilling and operation of oil wells. For the first time in the world, in 1910, the "Guidelines for drilling oil wells". In the United States, such literature on oil will be published only in 1921-1924.
In 1914, in Baku, Tikhvinsky invented a method of extracting oil from wells using compressed gas - gas lift. This method, more perfect than the compressor one with the help of compressed air (airlift), was first used on the Baku plants of the Nobel company. In the US, this method began to apply only in 1924. In May 15, 1916 prof. Tikhvinsky M.M., being the chairman of the Society of Baku District Engineers, read the report on the aromatization of oil, in which he showed the most suitable raw materials and favorable temperature of the process, detailed the design of the apparatus for the decomposition of oil, informed the factory outlets of the product and indicated the best methods of obtaining from petroleum of aromatic hydrocarbons, and first - toluene and benzene.
In addition to scientific works in the field of oil chemistry, the merit of Professor Ivan Gutt in Azerbaijan is his teaching activity: in 1926-1930 he was acting professor at the Department of Oil Chemistry of the Azerbaijan Oil Institute (since September 2015 – Azerbaijan State University of Oil and Industry), and since 1930 – he became professor and head of this department. Among his pupils there were many leading Azerbaijani specialists and scientists in the field of oil chemistry and oil refining (V.S. Aliyev, S.D. Mehdiyev, M.A. Dalin, etc.).
It should be noted that newspaper-journal in addition to purely scientific and economic problems of oil and gas field paid special attention to the issues of oilfield geology in Russia (and Azerbaijan) and abroad; reserves with oil reserves in the Caucasus and Absheron, as well as prospects for the development of new oil areas in the Volga region, Siberia and the Far East. Let that the OB as an application regularly printed verbatim reports of the congresses of Baku Mess and the annual "reviews of the Baku oil industry" as the main leading oil industry in the Russian Empire. Thus, according to the recognition of many foreign experts, studied the world history of oil business, exactly on the model and likeness of Baku editions of the Council of Congresses ("Oil Business" and "Surveys of the Baku Oil industry") in the future were built principles of Preparation and Processing of oil statistics in many countries of the world.
It is also characteristic that the journal had separate sections, in which special attention was paid to social issues, as well as decisions taken at the passing congresses of Baku oilmen; these sections published the "tasks of an internal nature that do not go beyond the fishing and plant areas, in particular, to improve the living conditions of the worker and the general employee, the organization of medical and sanitary matters, insurance workers In the case of death or mutilation, order of communication, as well as water supply, the devices of general education schools, national readings, libraries, etc.". For example, the magazine informed the public about the increase in the Congress of provisions for the organization of assistance to the wounded, and for the needs of the war in the total amount of up to 1 million rubles. [OB, 1915, ? 3, p. 35].
The uniqueness of this oil issue in the Caucasus, whose popularity in the scientific world has steadily increased, contributed to its access beyond the Caspian region; since 1900, the newspaper has been a correspondent office in London. By 1910, there were already signed points in all major cities of Russia and exchange of journals with many domestic and foreign oil periodicals.
Once again let that in the magazine OB were printed the large specialists of the oil industry, standing at the origins of this industry: Semyon Kvitko (1855-1917), Alexander Bulgakov (1858-1906), Nikolai Lebedev (1863-1931 Gg.), Eugene Yushkin (1874-1937), Viktor Herr (1875-1942), Konstantin Harichkov (1865-1921), Fatullabek Rustambeyov (1867-1946), Ivan Glushkov, Mikhail Tikhvinsky, Ivan Gutt and many others.
It was in the OB printed full information about the relatively little-known Russian Nobel Prize, in St. Petersburg (1898) [OB, 1900, ? 6, p. 320], Fig. 1 and in Baku, 1904 [OB, 1910, ? 13, p. 35; OB, 1914, ? 1, p. 24]. We can remind that established in St. Petersburg Ludwig Nobel prize for the best research on metallurgy and petroleum was awarded three times: in 1896, 1898 and 1905; and established in Baku Nobel Emanuel's prize for the best works and inventions in the field of oil was awarded four times: in 1909, 1910, 1911 and 1914. We would like to note that the Baku Prize was international – in the position on the prize in paragraph 2 it is written: the prize-seekers can be both Russian and foreign filed.
As noted above, being the printed edition of the Council of Congresses of Baku oilmen in the OB printed full information both about the Russian oil congresses held in Baku, and at the world's International congresses. As an example, we would like to inform you about the report of Professor-chemist Vladimir Markovnikov at the 1st International Oil Congress in Paris. The professor noted that "sulfur is known in Baku and Grozny oil only in compounds; nitrogen is very small; oxygen is in naphthenic acids, and mostly in heavy parts. ... According to the content of naphthene, the oil from Galitsia occupies the middle place between Russian and Pennsylvania oil. Bibi-Heybat's oil contains more (than Absheron oil) the paraffin, and Grozny oil is rich in aromatic and oxygen hydrocarbons " [OB, 1901, ? 11, p. 619].
It should be emphasized that the OB magazine was one of those publications, where objective articles were printed on the true reasons of the fuel crisis impending on the oil industry of Russia, as well as a positive assessment of the useful activities of Baku oilmen. So, in the article "unsubstantiated claims" it was noted: "It is Nobels, Mantashevs, Zubalovs, Taghiyevs, Nagiyevs, etc. as the industrialists and breeders carried on their shoulders a significant share of the Russian state budget, arranged at their own expense on breech pores land roads, water supply, network drainage canals, hospitals, schools, that is made possible and convenient operation of this area" [OB, 1913, ? 16, p. 4].
In 1911, in the 52-year anniversary of the American oil well in memory of Edwin Drake (1819-1880) it was founded the Oil Museum (Drake Memorial Museum). The magazine OB noted that "... In the museum according to the plan of its founders, the history of the oil industry will be presented, for which will be collected samples of sand, oil, tools and objects related to that time, as well as a library exclusively devoted to questions of theory and history Oil industry. The founders of the museum are set to make it a Mecca for all those interested in the oil industry" [ND, 1911, ? 16, p. 34]. Fig. 3. That is, the magazine, in our opinion, already then signalized about the need to create a similar museum in Russia (in Baku, on Bibi-Heybat), where the first oil well was drilled in 1846, much earlier than American in 1859.
It is gratifying that serious construction works are underway in Baku to create the largest oil museum in the Caspian region. The State Oil Company of the Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) underlined that the museum located behind the Bibi-Heybat mosque will not be include "Frozen" expositions, and most likely it will be working expositions of industrial production of oil, including functioning wooden well (the restored first well in the world, drilled in 1846) and other subjects of oil equipment and operational technology of that period. The museum will be designed to be visited by schoolchildren, students and tourists, as well as by all those interested in the rich oil history of Azerbaijan. The visitors will have research rooms, multiplex cinemas, as well as entertainment program, park, cafes and shops [ www.socar.az/neftmuzeyi/konseptualplanen.ppt].
After the October Revolution of 1917, the magazine OB, as well as most of the magazines published in the Russian Empire, was closed (by the decision of the Bolshevik of the Baku Council of People's Commissars in May 1918). It must be noted that during the First World War, the magazine continued to publish data on the state of the oil industry noting that the war completely disrupting the country's economy. Already in the last numbers of 1917 the oil journal emphasized: "... Under severe conditions, the oil industry meets the offensive of 1918... The situation becomes more critical not to say catastrophic... " [OB, 1917, ? 23-24, p. 2].
In September 1918, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic reopened the journal; his editor was a well-known journalist in the Caucasus – P.M. Kara-Murza. In March 1920, the last issue of the magazine with the former name was published. After the establishment of the Soviet power in Azerbaijan, in May 1920, the journal was renamed into the "Azerbaijan Oil Industry", which is published so far. Fig.4.
As a result, let said that throughout its 20-year history from 1899 to 1920 magazine OB carried out the main task, voiced in 1899 in the first issue: "... To cover and give impartial and full coverage of both private and global problems of the Russian and world oil industry in comparison with other industries ".
Currently, the journal "Azerbaijan Oil Industry", published by SOCAR and headed by academician Ibrahim Guliyev, is the oldest monthly scientific and technical journal of oil and gas industries in the world. All this time the magazine published and continue to publish the articles, essays and reviews on current problems in all areas of oil and gas industry (in the field of petroleum geology; organization of geological-prospecting and exploration works on oil and gas both on land and at sea; drilling technology and techniques; oil production; refining and petrochemicals, improvement of structures of commercial structures; construction of flyovers; as well as the history of the oil industry) not only of Azerbaijan, but also abroad. The articles are published in Azerbaijani and Russian languages; Since 2007, the articles have been published in English, and from 2009 to 2014 the full issue of the magazine was released twice a year in English.
In conclusion, we will note that next year (2019) is to be 120 years from the date of issue of the first scientific oil journal of Russian empire in Baku.
List of references
Brice William, 2012. The Drake Well Museum – new exhibits and symposium // Oil Industry History, v.13, #1, p.177-186.
Mir-Yusif Mir-Babayev, Doctor of Chemistry, Professor in Azerbaijan Technical University in Baku. Petroleumworld does not necessarily share these views.
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